Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Whakaari/White Island
Steam rises from the crater of White Island (also called Whakaari), one of the most active volcanoes of New Zealand. The small, uninhabited 2 x 2.4-km-wide island lies 50 km NE of the North Island. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since 1826, and Maori legends record earlier eruptions. This view from the SE shows the two overlapping 0.4 x 1.2 km wide craters at the summit of the largely submerged volcano. Copyrighted photo by Stephen O'Meara.
Volcano Number:241040
Volcano Name:Whakaari/White Island
Country:New Zealand
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano(es)
Last Eruption:2019 CE
Elevation:294m
Tectonic Setting:Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)
Pop. within 5km:5
Pop. within 10km:5
Pop. within 30km:5
Pop. within 100km:190290
Latitude:-37.52
Longitude:177.18



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
241040 Whakaari/White Island 13356 Confirmed Eruption 2 Noisy Nellie Crater Historical Observations 1947
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14387 Confirmed Eruption 3 Foot of crater ridge (1933 crater) Historical Observations 1933/4/2
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14460 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1826/12/1
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14461 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1836
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14462 Uncertain Eruption 2 1856
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14463 Uncertain Eruption 2 1885
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14464 Confirmed Eruption 2 West end of crater Historical Observations 1885
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14465 Uncertain Eruption 2 1886/6/10 1886/6/15
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14466 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1886/9/16 1886
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14467 Uncertain Eruption 2 1908/11/28 1908/12/6
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14468 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1909/5/13
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14470 Confirmed Eruption 2 NW end of crater (Lot's Wife vent) Historical Observations 1922
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14471 Confirmed Eruption 2 North end of crater (Schuberts Fairy?) Historical Observations 1924
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14472 Confirmed Eruption 2 Little Donald vent Historical Observations 1926/2/3
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14473 Confirmed Eruption 1 Between Big Donald and Lot's Wife Historical Observations 1928/9/1 1928/9/3
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14474 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1930/3/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14475 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1955/1/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14476 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1957/12/11
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14477 Confirmed Eruption 1 Noisy Nellie and 1933 craters Historical Observations 1958/12/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14478 Confirmed Eruption 2 Noisy Nellie Crater Historical Observations 1959/12/14 1959/12/20
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14479 Confirmed Eruption 3 Big John Crater Historical Observations 1962/12/15
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14480 Confirmed Eruption 3 Gilliver Crater Historical Observations 1966/11/13 1967/3/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14481 Confirmed Eruption 3 Rudolf vent (back wall of 1933 crater) Historical Observations 1968/1/27 1969/2/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14482 Confirmed Eruption 2 Rudolf vent Historical Observations 1969/8/16 1969/9/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14483 Confirmed Eruption 2 Rudolf vent Historical Observations 1970/6/30
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14484 Confirmed Eruption 2 Noisy Nellie Crater Historical Observations 1971/4/9
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14485 Confirmed Eruption 2 South of Rudolf (1971 crater) Historical Observations 1971/7/19 1971/7/20
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14486 Confirmed Eruption 2 SE of Donald Mound, Historical Observations 1974/9/8
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14487 Confirmed Eruption 3 Christmas, Gibrus, and 1978 craters Historical Observations 1976/12/18 1982/1/29
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14489 Confirmed Eruption 2 North margin of 1978 crater complex Historical Observations 1983/12/26 1984/2/12
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14490 Confirmed Eruption 3 Congress and numerous other craters Historical Observations 1986/2/1 1994/7/28
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14491 Confirmed Eruption 1 Wade Crater Historical Observations 1995/6/28 1995/6/29
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14492 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1998/3/28 1998/3/29
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14493 Confirmed Eruption 2 NW corner of 1978/90 crater complex Historical Observations 1998/8/22 1999/8/16
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14494 Confirmed Eruption 3 ? MH vent Historical Observations 2000/3/7 2000/9/5
241040 Whakaari/White Island 14495 Confirmed Eruption 2 MH vent Historical Observations 2001/2/19 2001/2/19
241040 Whakaari/White Island 20839 Confirmed Eruption 2 1978/90 Crater Complex Historical Observations 2012/8/7 2013/10/11
241040 Whakaari/White Island 22121 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2016/4/27 2016/4/27
241040 Whakaari/White Island 22147 Confirmed Eruption 1 2012 lava dome Historical Observations 2016/9/13 2016/9/13
241040 Whakaari/White Island 22338 Confirmed Eruption 2 1978/90 Crater Complex Historical Observations 2019/12/9 2019/12/9
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Sorry. No emissions data found for this volcano.


Data from the Earthchem Library
Title Author Release Date DOI Link
Volcanic gas plume data from White Island Volcano (New Zealand) Liuzzo, Marco 2018-01-01 10.1594/IEDA/100662 Details
The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world’s subaerial volcanoes The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world’s subaerial volcanoes Fischer, Tobias 2020-11-21 10.1594/IEDA/111445 Details
Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database
Sorry. No data exist for this volcano in the SESAR database.


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: White Island crater floor (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Soil diffuse degassing in the crater floor
Hazard Description: not reported
Type: soil_diffuse_emission
Region: Old miners' track
Country: New Zealand
Volcanic Complex: White Island
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Date Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
white_island_1999 Detail 1999/01/01 CO2 99 0 Mg/d
White_Island_2014 Detail 2014/01/01 CO2 124 18 Mg/d
White Island_01011998 Detail 1998/01/01 CO2 8.7 0 Mg/d

Location: White Island (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: is an active andesite stratovolcano, situated 48 km (30 mi) from the east coast of the North Island of New Zealand, in the Bay of Plenty. It is New Zealand’s most active cone volcano, and has been built up by continuous volcanic activity over the past 150,000 years.
Hazard Description: not reported
Type: volcanic_plume
Region: Bay Of Plenty, New Zealand
Country: New Zealand
Volcanic Complex: White Island
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Date Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
White Island_02011998a Detail 1998/01/02 CO2 2570 0 Mg/d
White Island_02011998b Detail 1998/01/02 CO2 2650 0 Mg/d
White Island_04032003 Detail 2003/03/04 SO2 225 0 Mg/d
White Island_13052003 Detail 2003/05/13 SO2 8 0 Mg/d
White Island_03072003 Detail 2003/07/03 CO2 280 0 Mg/d
White Island_13052003 Detail 2003/05/13 CO2 340 0 Mg/d
White Island_04032003 Detail 2003/03/04 CO2 840 0 Mg/d
White Island_30102003 Detail 2003/10/30 CO2 1300 0 Mg/d
White Island_30102003 Detail 2003/10/30 SO2 34 0 Mg/d
White Island_02122003 Detail 2003/12/02 CO2 1120 0 Mg/d
White Island_02122003 Detail 2003/12/02 SO2 36 0 Mg/d
White Island_22012004 Detail 2004/01/22 CO2 690 0 Mg/d
White Island_22012004 Detail 2004/01/22 SO2 25 0 Mg/d
White Island_25022004 Detail 2004/02/25 CO2 530 0 Mg/d
White Island_25022004 Detail 2004/02/25 SO2 59 0 Mg/d
White Island_08042004 Detail 2004/04/08 CO2 530 0 Mg/d
White Island_08042004 Detail 2004/04/08 SO2 65 0 Mg/d
White Island_06052004 Detail 2004/05/06 CO2 260 0 Mg/d
White Island_06052004 Detail 2004/05/06 SO2 44 0 Mg/d
White Island_15062004 Detail 2004/06/15 CO2 390 0 Mg/d
White Island_15062004 Detail 2004/06/15 SO2 45 0 Mg/d
White Island_04082004 Detail 2004/08/04 CO2 900 0 Mg/d
White Island_04082004 Detail 2004/08/04 SO2 35 0 Mg/d
White Island_15092004 Detail 2004/09/15 CO2 630 0 Mg/d
White Island_15092004 Detail 2004/09/15 SO2 53 0 Mg/d
White Island_20102004 Detail 2004/10/20 CO2 760 0 Mg/d
White Island_20102004 Detail 2004/10/20 SO2 58 0 Mg/d
White Island_02122004 Detail 2004/12/02 CO2 530 0 Mg/d
White Island_02122004 Detail 2004/12/02 SO2 59 0 Mg/d
White Island_28012005 Detail 2005/01/28 CO2 930 0 Mg/d
White Island_28012005 Detail 2005/01/28 SO2 138 0 Mg/d
White Island_15032005 Detail 2005/03/15 CO2 1300 0 Mg/d
White Island_15032005 Detail 2005/03/15 SO2 140 0 Mg/d
White Island_26042005 Detail 2005/04/26 CO2 260 0 Mg/d
White Island_26042005 Detail 2005/04/26 SO2 73 0 Mg/d
White Island_14062005 Detail 2005/06/14 CO2 1280 0 Mg/d
White Island_14062005 Detail 2005/06/14 SO2 96 0 Mg/d
White Island_21072005 Detail 2005/07/21 CO2 1570 0 Mg/d
White Island_21072005 Detail 2005/07/21 SO2 140 0 Mg/d
White Island_02112005 Detail 2005/11/02 CO2 2200 0 Mg/d
White Island_02112005 Detail 2005/11/02 SO2 310 0 Mg/d
White Island_16012006 Detail 2006/01/16 CO2 2000 0 Mg/d
White Island_16012006 Detail 2006/01/16 SO2 260 0 Mg/d
White Island_14022006 Detail 2006/02/14 CO2 1170 0 Mg/d
White Island_14022006 Detail 2006/02/14 SO2 240 0 Mg/d
White Island_05042006 Detail 2006/04/05 CO2 740 0 Mg/d
White Island_05042006 Detail 2006/04/05 SO2 237 0 Mg/d
White Island_17052006 Detail 2006/05/17 CO2 410 0 Mg/d
White Island_17052006 Detail 2006/05/17 SO2 111 0 Mg/d
White Island_28062006 Detail 2006/06/28 CO2 920 0 Mg/d
White Island_28062006 Detail 2006/06/28 SO2 373 0 Mg/d
White Island_03082006 Detail 2006/08/03 CO2 1250 0 Mg/d
White Island_03082006 Detail 2006/08/03 SO2 430 0 Mg/d
White Island_27111983 Detail 1983/11/27 CO2 3630 0 Mg/d
White Island_27111983 Detail 1983/11/27 SO2 1200 0 Mg/d
White Island_21111984 Detail 1984/11/21 CO2 885 0 Mg/d
White Island_21111984 Detail 1984/11/21 SO2 320 0 Mg/d
White Island_07011985 Detail 1985/01/07 CO2 970 0 Mg/d
White Island_07011985 Detail 1985/01/07 SO2 350 0 Mg/d