Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Gamalama
Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that rises abruptly NW of the city of Ternate, the principal port of the renowned spice islands of northern Maluku. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions from Gamalama, one of the most active volcanoes in Indonesia, have been recorded since the 16th century. Photo by Jack Lockwood, 1980 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Volcano Number:268060
Volcano Name:Gamalama
Country:Indonesia
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano(es)
Last Eruption:2018 CE
Elevation:1715m
Tectonic Setting:Subduction zone / Oceanic crust (< 15 km)
Pop. within 5km:103429
Pop. within 10km:204820
Pop. within 30km:308691
Pop. within 100km:536972
Latitude:0.8
Longitude:127.33



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
268060 Gamalama 16490 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1538
268060 Gamalama 16597 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1510
268060 Gamalama 16598 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1561/12/31
268060 Gamalama 16599 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1605
268060 Gamalama 16600 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1608/7/18 1608/7/19
268060 Gamalama 16601 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1635/3/29
268060 Gamalama 16602 Uncertain Eruption 2 ? 1643/6/15
268060 Gamalama 16603 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1648/6/15 1648/6/18
268060 Gamalama 16604 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1653/12/31
268060 Gamalama 16605 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1659
268060 Gamalama 16607 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1676/12/31
268060 Gamalama 16608 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1686 1686/10/13
268060 Gamalama 16609 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1687/5/10 1687/5/11
268060 Gamalama 16610 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1737/3/10 1737/3/13
268060 Gamalama 16611 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1739
268060 Gamalama 16612 Confirmed Eruption 2 North flank Historical Observations 1763
268060 Gamalama 16613 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1770/7/6 1770/12/9
268060 Gamalama 16614 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1771/8/28 1772/10/9
268060 Gamalama 16615 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1773/2/2 1773/2/7
268060 Gamalama 16616 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1773/10/21 1774/1/22
268060 Gamalama 16617 Confirmed Eruption 3 Summit and NW flank (100 m) Historical Observations 1775/8/20 1775/11/6
268060 Gamalama 16618 Uncertain Eruption 1781
268060 Gamalama 16619 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1811/2/1 1811
268060 Gamalama 16620 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1812/9/7 1812/9/7
268060 Gamalama 16621 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1814/11/27 1814/11/28
268060 Gamalama 16623 Uncertain Eruption 1 1821/8/22
268060 Gamalama 16624 Uncertain Eruption 1830
268060 Gamalama 16625 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1831/5/27 1831/6/27
268060 Gamalama 16626 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1833/6/15
268060 Gamalama 16627 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1835/1/4
268060 Gamalama 16628 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1838/2/26 1838
268060 Gamalama 16629 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1839/1/29 1839/3/26
268060 Gamalama 16630 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1840/2/2 1840/9/29
268060 Gamalama 16631 Uncertain Eruption 1 1841/3/30 1841/11/20
268060 Gamalama 16632 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1842/10/6 1842/12/31
268060 Gamalama 16633 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1843/4/10 1843/5/27
268060 Gamalama 16634 Uncertain Eruption 1 1844/3/24 1844/11/14
268060 Gamalama 16635 Uncertain Eruption 1 1845/4/23 1845/9/3
268060 Gamalama 16636 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1846/5/19 1846/5/19
268060 Gamalama 16637 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1847/2/7 1847/2/7
268060 Gamalama 16639 Confirmed Eruption Historical Observations 1847/9/7 1847/9/7
268060 Gamalama 16640 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1849/11/27 1850/11/19
268060 Gamalama 16641 Uncertain Eruption 1 1858 1859
268060 Gamalama 16642 Uncertain Eruption 1 1860
268060 Gamalama 16643 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1862/7/15 1862
268060 Gamalama 16644 Uncertain Eruption 2 1863/5/1 1863
268060 Gamalama 16645 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1864/1/20 1864/2/17
268060 Gamalama 16646 Uncertain Eruption 1 1864/6/4 1864/6/25
268060 Gamalama 16647 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1864/12/27 1865/1/2
268060 Gamalama 16648 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1868/3/13 1868/3/13
268060 Gamalama 16649 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1868/11/13 1869/2/10
268060 Gamalama 16651 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1871/8/7 1871/9/25
268060 Gamalama 16652 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1884 1884
268060 Gamalama 16653 Uncertain Eruption 1 1884/12/8 1884/12/9
268060 Gamalama 16654 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1895/12/19 1895/12/19
268060 Gamalama 16655 Uncertain Eruption 1 1896/8/3 1896/8/4
268060 Gamalama 16656 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1897/9/7 1897/9/24
268060 Gamalama 16657 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1898/5/14 1898/5/28
268060 Gamalama 16658 Uncertain Eruption 1 1900 1900/6/4
268060 Gamalama 16659 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1907/11/17 1907/11/20
268060 Gamalama 16660 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1911/9/2 1911/9/6
268060 Gamalama 16661 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1918 1918/9/4
268060 Gamalama 16662 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1923/4/13 1923/5/6
268060 Gamalama 16663 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1932/11/10 1932/11/13
268060 Gamalama 16664 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1933/11/12
268060 Gamalama 16665 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1938/9/8 1938/9/8
268060 Gamalama 16666 Confirmed Eruption 2 East flank Historical Observations 1962/12/31 1963/1/2
268060 Gamalama 16667 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1980/9/4 1980/9/23
268060 Gamalama 16668 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1983/8/9 1983/8/12
268060 Gamalama 16669 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1988/2/12 1988/3/16
268060 Gamalama 16670 Confirmed Eruption 3 ? Historical Observations 1990/4/25 1990/4/26
268060 Gamalama 16671 Uncertain Eruption 1 ? 1991/6/15 1991/6/15
268060 Gamalama 16672 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1993/5/6 1993/5/21
268060 Gamalama 16673 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1994/1/16 1994/10/15
268060 Gamalama 16674 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1996/7/2
268060 Gamalama 16675 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2003/7/31 2003/10/2
268060 Gamalama 16676 Uncertain Eruption 1 ? 2007/8/23
268060 Gamalama 16677 Uncertain Eruption 1 2008/5/10
268060 Gamalama 20765 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2011/12/5 2011/12/23
268060 Gamalama 20766 Confirmed Eruption 1 Summit crater Historical Observations 2012/9/15 2012/9/17
268060 Gamalama 20989 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2014/12/18 2014/12/25
268060 Gamalama 21087 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2015/7/16 2015/9/8
268060 Gamalama 22150 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2016/8/3 2016/8/4
268060 Gamalama 22295 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2018/10/4 2018/10/6
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
155 5 2003/07/31 2003/07/31
156 8 2011/12/04 2011/12/04


Data from the Earthchem Library
Title Author Release Date DOI Link
The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world’s subaerial volcanoes The emissions of CO2 and other volatiles from the world’s subaerial volcanoes Fischer, Tobias 2020-11-21 10.1594/IEDA/111445 Details
Compilation of whole rock geochemistry and petrography of samples from the Halmahera islands, Indonesia Gill, James 2020-03-05 10.26022/IEDA/111502 Details
Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database
Sorry. No data exist for this volcano in the SESAR database.


Data from the MaGa Database
Sorry. No data exist for this volcano in the MaGa database.